1)It is written down and usually signed by those who oversaw the document being drafted and undertake to follow same.
2)Rights are clearly mentioned so that people who are governed by rules contained in same, know their entitlement.
3)Minimum expectations from leaders as well as people are listed so that they may, with passing time, be updated.
4)Promises are made to be fulfilled in future which past have rendered necessary yet difficult, even impossible.
5)Certain areas maintaining status quo are marked out so that like above mentioned promises, they may be worked upon.
6)Method of determining issues related to nationality, socio economic equity and welfare are set out. These are inflexible, usually.

1)Supreme headquarters : Sokoto and Gwandu were the seats of the Emirs. The Emir of Gwandu controlled the western empire while the Emir of Sokoto controlled the eastern empire.
2)District administration : Each emirate was divided into districts for administrative convenience. An official known as Hakimi was usually appointed to
the Emir to administer the district.
3)Village heads : Village heads were appointed by Haikimi to help in the collection of taxes, e.g. cattle tax (Jangali).
4)Legislative functions : Islamic laws were the supreme laws of the emirate.
5)Executive functions : The emir was authoritarian and had absolute powers even though he had a body of advisers, yet he can ignore or accept their advice.
6)Judicial functions: The judicial administration was based on Sharia laws. The laws were administered by Alkali judges.
7)Centralized administration : The emirate system was a highly centralized one with the Emirs possessing almost all the powers. He was an authoritarian ruler.


1)The independence constitution provided for a democratic parliamentary system of government whereby the office of the head of State is different from the office of the head of government.
2)A federal system of government was retained.
3)Queen Elizabeth was still the Head of state, Nnamdi Azikwe, the Governor – General, was a ceremonial Head of State representing the Queen until October 1st1963 when Nigeria became a republican State.
4)The prime minister was the Head of government and administration {Tafawa Balewa}.
5)The constitution provided for a bi-cameral legislature at the center, the Senate (upper house) and House of Representatives ( lower house).
6)The constitution provided a premier as the Head of the executive of each region.


1)The Role of Equity Legislation
Sometimes, the law do seems to be inconsistent with some of the laws. In other words, laws could be ambitious, that is to say that the laws are silent, and in such cases, it is incumbent on the Judge to bring in his wisdom.
2)Judiciary Protects People’s Rights
The judiciary is vested with the power of safeguarding the rights of the Nigerian citizenry. That is its supreme responsibility as the third organ of government. In the case, where the citizen’s rights is threatened, or maybe, violated by whoever, the individual has the constitution right as a Nigerian citizen to seek his protection from the Nigerian judiciary, because one major function of the judiciary is the protection of the rights of the Nigerian citizens, even foreigners, since it has to do with human rights.
3)Juduciary Conducts Judicial Inquiries
More often, issues of state important do come up that normally begs for inquiries. In such a situation, court Judges are normally called upon to serve such purposes. Once Enquiry Commissions are constituted, Judges are always the people to head such commissions.
4)Judiciary Special Role in a Federation*
The judiciary has more vital role to play, where a federal system of government is practice, such as the Nigerian situation. This role include, guarding the constitution and as well as arbitering disputes involving say, the federal and the state governments.
5)Judiciary Interprets and Applies Laws*
Another functions of the judiciary is the interpretation and the application of laws to all cases. We are in the know that, judiciary disputes and as well, decides on cases brought before it.


Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing
Imperialism refers to political or economic control, either formally or informally. In simple words, colonialism can be thought to be a practice and imperialism as the idea driving the practice.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty over the homeland.
Warrant Chiefs, Africa The British appointed willing participants or collaborators and gave them “warrants” to act as local representatives of the British administration among their people.


(i) Appointment of the Executive Secretary: It is the body that appoints the Executive Secretary for the organisation.

(ii) Decision-Making: It is the highest decision making body.

(iii) Regional economy: It discusses issues pertaining to the economy of the sub-region.

(iv) Recommendations: It approves the recommendations of the council of ministers

(v) Treaties and agreements: It approves all agreements and treaties entered into by the community.

(vi) Amendment of the charter: It approves prosposals initiated for the amendment of the charter establishing the community.