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(i) Amos pronounced God’s judgment against Damascus the capital city of Syria. They had mistreated expectant mothers who according to the law were not to be attacked during wars, God was therefore going to send fire on the nation.
(ii) God would send fire to destroy Philistia for selling their citizens as slaves to Edom.
(iii) Tyre was to be destroyed with fire for selling Israelites as slaves to Edom.
(iv) Edom were also to be destroyed with fire for killing and enslaving citizens of Jerusalem

(i) This was the choosing of Israel by God as a special people through whom humankind could know God
(ii) Amos taught that God chose Israel out of the love for her forefathers and so they were not to be proud of that because God could have chosen another nation.
(iii) Israelites were called to serve Yahweh failure of which meant punishment.


According to Matthew, Jesus came from Galilee to be baptized by John the Baptist to baptize him so as to fulfill all righteousness. Therefore, when Jesus met John the Baptist for baptism, he(John) was astonished OR surprised for seeing Jesus coming to him for baptism and wanted to stop the baptism of Jesus Christ but Jesus insisted that John the Baptist must baptise him and John agreed to do so.
Later, John the Baptist took Jesus down to river Jordan and there Jesus was baptised and after the baptism, as they were coming up from the river, Heaven were opened and a dove descended on the head of Jesus and a voice from heaven stated that Jesus is a beloved Son of God with whom God is well pleased with.
In conclusion, after the baptism of Jesus, Jesus came down to Galilee while John the Baptist continuing baptising at river Jordan.

(i) Christians have to accept Christ as their personal Lord and Saviour.
(ii) Christians should at all time confess their sins to God and ask God for forgiveness
(iii) Christians should be born again ie born of the water and of the spirit.
(iv) Christians should at all time have faith and trust in God.


James in his letter buttressed the importance of faith in Christianity. He asserts that a Christian’s faith should reflect through his or her work. For instance, if one should see another naked or hungry and instead of offering clothing or food to the person, and rather he or she is abandoned. How then can the person prove it boast about his faith in Christ.
He aggressively that such a fellow that does not exhibit good works does not have faith. Furthermore, even the idol. Worshippers and some other unbelievers also know that there is God, but since their works does not portray good Christian living; Their evil works has disannuled their faith. Hence, their faith is dead. More so he added that Abraham was justified by his works when he had offered Issac his son in the altar. Hence not just by faith.
Rehab, the harlot was also justified by works when she delivered the people of God who were about being killed.
Conclusively, according to James, faith not backed up with works is dead.

(i) It makes one fearless
(ii) It makes a Christian to trust and have confidence in God.
(iii) It makes a Christian to fulfill his destiny.
(iv) it brings the blessings of God to someone.
(v) It makes one justified before God.


Peter in his letter to Christians living in a community first reminded them that they are chosen people to proclaim the good name of God who called them out of darkness to light so as to give light to the world wherever they are.
Again, Peter told them to abstain themselves from passions of the flesh which are also at work against their soul. On the otherhand, Peter said that Christian should for God sake submit themselves to every human authority such as the emperors, the leaders and others in authority.
Furthermore, he told the Christians not to use their freedom to cover up any evil, rather Christian should love as God’s people thereby respecting everyone, loving one another, fearing God and respecting the emperors or those in authority.
Moreover, Peter warned the slave Christians or the servants that they must submit to their master and bear the name of Christ. Again he told Christians that when their faith is been tested, let them be glad because the purpose is to prove that their fathers genuine and he use gold which can be destroyed by fire as an example. So their faith must be tested to keep them know other.
In conclusion, Peter warned Christians to be obedient children and not to conform to the passions of their formal ignorant but they should be holy since God himself their father is holy.

(i) A Christian must be a humble person because Christ himself is humble.
(ii) Every Christian must be honest.
(iii) Every Christian must be God fearing and obedient to God’s words.



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1. Surah An-Nasr (110) Transliteration

Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
1. Iza jaa-a nas rullahi walfath
2. Wa ra-aitan naasa yadkhuloona fee deenil laahi afwajah
3. Fa sab bih bihamdi rabbika was taghfir, innahu kaana tawwaaba

1. When comes the Help of Allah, and Victory,
2. And thou dost see the people enter Allah.s Religion in crowds,
3. Celebrate the praises of thy Lord, and pray for His Forgiveness: For He is Oft-Returning (in Grace and Mercy).


In Islam, shirk (Arabic ﺷﺮﻙ širk) is the sin of practicing idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything besides the singular God, i.e. Allah. Literally, it means ascribing or the establishment of “partners” placed beside God. It is the vice that is opposed to the virtue of Tawhid (monotheism). Those who practice shirk are termed mushrikun.

Two Types Of Shirk

1) Shirk akbar (Major shirk)
2) shirk asghar (Minor shirk).

1) Major shirk
This means ascribing to someone other than Allaah
something that belongs only to Allaah, such as Lordship (ruboobiyyah), divinity (uloohiyyah) and the divine names and attributes (al-asma’ wa’l-sifaat).

This kind of shirk may sometimes be outward, such as the shirk of those who worship idols and graves, or the dead or absent. Or it may sometimes be hidden, such as those who put their trust in other gods besides Allaah, or the shirk and kufr of the hypocrites. For even though their (hypocrites) shirk puts them beyond the pale of Islam and means that they will abide forever in Hell, it is a hidden shirk, because they make an outward display of Islam and conceal their kufr and shirk, so they are inwardly mushriks but not outwardly.

Examples Of Major Shirk

1) Such as one who sacrifices, prays or prostrates to something other than Allaah
2) Such as one who promulgates laws to replace the rulings of Allaah and makes that a man-made law to which people are obliged to refer for judgement
3) Or one who supports the kaafirs and helps them against the believers

2) Minor shirk
This includes everything that may lead to major shirk, or which is described in the texts as being shirk, but does not reach the extent of being major shirk.
This is usually of two types:
1) Being emotionally attached to some means which have no basis and for which Allaah has not given permission, such as hanging up “hands”, turquoise beads etc on the grounds that they offer protection or that they ward off the evil eye. But Allaah has not made them the means of such protection, either according to shareeah or according to the laws of the universe.

2) Venerating some people or things in a way that
does not go so far as ascribing lordship to them, such as swearing by something other than Allaah, or saying,
“Were it not for Allaah and So and so,” etc.

Examples Of Minor Shirk

1) Such as hanging up amulets or wearing a talisman or string to dispel or ward off calamity, because everyone who attribute powers to a thing when Allaah has not made it so either according to shareeah (Quran & Sunnah) or according to the laws of the universe, has associated something with Allaah.

2) Or saying words like, “Whatever Allaah wills and you will. (Even it is said for the Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam).

3) Such as when some people, “We have been
given rain because such and such event” without believing that the events could independently cause rain to fall. This is because it is Allah who gives rains as He wills.


After the demise of the Prophet(p), the first Caliph Abu Bakr, assembled all the Huffaz (those who have committed the Quran to memory), and the written records of the Glorious Quran and with their help had the whole text written in Book form. In the time of Uthman, copies of this original version were made and officially dispatched to the Capitals of the Islamic world. Two of the original manuscripts of the Quran prepared 1400 years ago still exist today; one is in the Topkapi Saray Museum in Istanbul, Turkey, and the other in Tashkent, Russia. Both of these are identical in content with the Quran available all over the world today.

And how can one expect any discrepancy, when there have existed several million “Huffaz” (someone who has memorized the entire Quran, word for word, cover to cover) in every generation since the time of the Holy Prophet (p) and in our own time. Should anyone alter a syllable of the original text of the Quran, these Huffaz would at once expose the mistake.
4a. shirk is the sin of practicing idolatry or polytheism, i.e. the deification or worship of anyone or anything besides the singular God, i.e. Allah. Literally, it means ascribing or the establishment of “partners” placed beside God.
4b. 1. Ash-Shirk al-akbar – major shirk (takes out of the fold of Islam)
2. Ash-Shirk al-asghar – small shirk

Examples of Ash-Shirk al-akbar – major shirk

1. If a person dies (committing shirk akbar) and never repents for it, he will be a permanent resident in hell-fire.
2. Worship another God apart from Allah

Examples of Ash-Shirk al-asghar
1. Ar-Riyaa – showing off

2. Performing Hajj for money

3. Making adhaan for people to hear his voice

4. The one who leads the prayer for money or takes money for du’a

5. Performing Jihad for the sake of making money or taking booty