Monday, 16th April, 2018

Literature-In-English 3 (Drama & Poetry) – 2:00p.m. – 4:30 p.m


Santigi is the king of the village of Mando. He is a good and just king who rules his people well. He is an impartial king. He is the father of kindo. He is/was deceived by maligu to support the strangers coming to the village. He easily trust people and that is why maligu capitalizes on that to deceive him. He is highly respected. As a king of Mando, hr counts on whitehead’s promises that he will establish school to teach his people. He feels happy that his people will soon Know how to read and write. As an impartial king, he banished kindo, his son when he commits murder. This rare trait is hardly found these days among kings. His interest as a king is for the village to be peaceful and progressive. This is a mark of good leadership. He is a quintessence of good leadership, impartial and truth.


Tony Lumpkin, son of Mrs Hardcastle by her first husband (Mr Lumpkin) and stepson to Mr Hardcastle. He is a mischievous, uneducated playboy and a very consumptive figure; a fat, ale-drinking young man who has little ambition except to play practical jokes and to visit the local tavern whenever be has a mind; frightens the maids and worries the kittens. Proves to be good-natured and kind despite his superficial disdain for everyone. do Mrs Hardcastle has no authority over Tony, and their relationship contrasts with that between Hardcastle and Kate.
Tony takes an interest in horses, “Bet Bouncer and especially the alehouse, where he joyfully sings with members of the lower-classes. When Tony comes of age, he will receive 1,500 pounds a year. His mother hopes to marry him to her niece, constance Neville, who is in line to inherit a casket of jewels from her uncle. Tony and Miss Neville despise each other It is Tony’s initial ception of Marlow, for a joke, which sets up the plot Tony goes to great effort to help Neville and Hastings in their plans to leave the country because he despises her.
Tony’s free-wheeling ways of drinking and tomfoolery is probably because of the huge inheritance that awaits him when he comes of age.


The mood is gloomy and sober with a corresponding tone of lamentation and pessimism. There appears to be a shift in tone in the last stanza as he expresses hope but he ends the stanza on a pessimistic note.
As a result of the many years of failed governance, the country experiences all kinds of social problems like violence, robbery, insurgence, kidnapping thus becoming a sabre-toothed tiger/a giant hawk . The youths and elder statesmen refrain from agitation for fear of being persecuted or repressed by government: While infants shudder home/the grizzled ones snatch their gut/from bayonets of tribulation/halting venturous walk at dusk .
In the last stanza, while the poet looks forward to a generation that will take the nation out of its hopeless state toward the shore of possibilities, his hope is threatened by the ravenous nature of the ruling class: The land lies patiently ahead/ awaiting in ambush , ready to devour the future change- agents.;


Death is presented by the poet as a voyage in crossing the bar. A voyage is a means of transportation from one location to another or from one place to another. The poem talks about passage to eternity. Death is an inevitable factor in human existence and it causes when it comes. A means of transportation or voyage means that one is at one location and is being taken to another place. Man(all humans) are on earth. A temporary location from where they will pass to eternity. The means of pass to eternity..”crossing the bar” is through death which is the voyage. The poet imagines his death at sunset as the call of nature comes. This sunset and evening which he maintains in the first stanza are symbols of old age when the to be transported should expect his/her voyage to the other location where he/she hitherto has never been.
The poet sees death as an ultimate means for this voyage which cannot be underscored. Though he emphasizes that when he embarks, may there be no sadness of farewell. He does not ask of hues and cries because he knows that through this voyage called death he will meet his saviour optimistically. This is captured in the last two lines of the poem.
…I hope to see my pilot face to face
When I have crossed the bar
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