(Answer only TWO questions from this section)
Migration is the movement of people from one area to another within a country or from one country to another country with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.

(i) Rural-urban migration: This is the movement of people from rural area like villages to urban areas like towns and cities.
(ii) Urban-urban migration: This is the movement of people from one town or city to another.
(ii) Urban-rural migration: This is the movement of people from one urban centre to rural area
(iv) International migration: This is the movement of people from one country to another

(i) Labour distribution: Migration affect the world labour distribution such that the area where people leaves suffer for labour shortage while the destination areas experience increase in labour force
(ii) Economic effects: The source region where people leave suffer for economic redundancies due to the movement of people from such area
(iii) Population distribution: Migration is major factor that affect the world population distribution due to constant movement of people from one place to another
(iv) Development of ghettos: The migration of people into another area to the destination region may lead to the development of ghetto due to lack of housing facilities.


(i) Movement of goods and services: Transportation ensures the movement of goods and services from point of origin to their destination point in urban and industrial areas. Eg: air transport moves mails, perishable goods, high valued goods, military equipments, etc
(ii) Movement of people: Transportation equally ensures the movement of people from one part of a country to another, either for work or other purposes.
(iii) National and international trade: Transportation enhances trade between two countries and also between two diferent regions in a country. Eg: Through water transport, Nigeria is able to transport her petroleum to U.S.A and Britain; and get cars and machinery from these countires.
(iv) Development of tourism: people from different part of the world visits tourist centres through different means of transportation.
(v) Increased production: Transportation enables people increase their production either in agricultural, mineral or industrial goods.

(i) Presence of highlands: This limits the construction of roads, railways and airports in an area.
(ii) Distance: The longer the distance between two places, the more the transport, energy, time and cost of transportation.
(iii) Lack of capital: Owing to lack of capital, roads, railways, airports, etc are often difficult to construct and maintain.
(iv) Low patronage: Due to low patronage of these means of transportation, partly due to low income and low volume of trade, government is not encouraged to construct roads, railways, airports, etc.


Localisation of industries is defined as the idea and practice of establishing many industries in a particular area for economic, social, geographical or political reasons.

(i)It leads to invention or innovations
(ii) It helps in development of organised markets
(iii) It ensures creations of employment opportunity
(iv) It helps in provision of social amenities

(i) It lead to congestion
(ii) It escalates crime rate
(iii) It causes over-pollution
(iv) It causes uneven development

(i) Increase in national income: Industrialization allows country to make optimal use of their scare resources. It increase quality and quantity of goods manufactured in that company which make larger contribution to GDP
(ii) High Standard of living: In an industrialized society workers, labour is worth more in addition, because of higher productivity individual national income 
(iii) Economic stability: A nation that depends on the production and export of raw material alone can not achieve a rapid economic growth. Industrialization is the best way for providing economic stability
(iv) Improvement in balance of paymen(BOP): Industrialization change the pattern of foreign trade in the country. It increase export of manufactured goods, which are more profitable in foreign exchange.


(Answer only TWO questions from this section)
(i) Employment: Mining has created a lot of jobs for Nigerians which helps to facilitate the economic development of Nigeria.
(ii) Revenue Generation: Taxes paid by companies including import and export duties on minerals helps generate revenue for the government.
(iii) Provision of essential goods: Essential goods or products are dervide from minerals which ehances export trade eg: Petroleum, provides kerosene, petrol, grease, engine oil and aviation fuel.
(iv) Raw materials for industries: Mining has helped in provision of raw materials like limestone to cement industries and iron ore to iron and steel industries.

(i) Poor transport network: There is bad road which limit mining work
(ii) Inadequate capital: There is little capital available to the miners and this is a big problem facing them in Nigeria
(iii) Lack of experts: The Qualified personnel are not sufficient
(iv) Instability of prices of minerals: The price of tapped minerals are not stable globally

(i) Government should construct good roads
ii) Government should provide capital to enhance mining activities
(iii) Workers must be adequately trained
(iv) Mineral prices should be stabilized by the government


(i) Free movement of ECOWAS members to other member countries without visas is guaranteed.
(ii) ECOWAS regional gatherings provided opportunities for member countries to meet with their counterparts from other member countries to share and promote ideas through sports.
(iii) Members have participated in trade fairs through which her products were advertised;
(iv) Members have benefited from the free movement of goods and services; there is always a ready market for the sale of her produce.

(i)Language barrier:
There are three languages that are used for communication within the ECOWAS , that is English, French and Portuguese. For easy communication among members there is the the need for individuals in the region to be able to speak these languages but this is proving to be difficult. This has necessitated the use of interpreters to make people understand each other at summit meetings.

(ii)Widespread Poverty:
Many of the member states of ECOWAS are among the poorest of the poor nations in the world. Many of their citizens earn less that a dollar a day. This, in a certain sense is preventing real economic integration of the sub-region while many continue to live in squalor and deprivation.

(iii) Human Rights Abuses:
Another problem of the ECOWAS group is the penchant of the member states to abuse the human rights of their citizens. The human rights records of some member states is nothing to write home about. Champions of human rights abuse have cited member states on many occasions over their human rights abuse.Togo was ever cited, Nigeria under Sanni Abacha has ever been cited. This is a problem for ECOWAS.

(iv) Financial problems:
The aims and objectives of the ECOWAS can only be achieved when the financial base of the community is solid. However, some member states are not able to honour their financial obligations to the community.This is one problem that has bedeviled the community over the years, especially when it comes to the running of the affairs of the community.