Society is referred to as the association of human beings. Society includes every kind and degree of relationship entered into by men, whether oraganized or unorganized, direct or indirect, conscious or unconscious, cooperative or antangonistic.

(i) Interdependence: Society implies interdependence. It is another essential element to constitute society. It is not possible for human being to satisfy his desire in isolation. He needs the help of others for his survival.
(ii) Cooperation: Cooperation is also another essential element to constitute society. Without cooperation, no society can exist.
(iii) Conflict: Conflict is an ever present phenomenon present in every human society. Not only cooperation but also conflict in necessary for the formation of society. They must coexist in a healthy society. Conflict is a process of struggle through which all things having into existence.
(iv) Likeness: Likeness of members in a social group is the primary basis of their mutuality. May be in the beginning assumed or real common lineage, tribal affinity, family benefit or the compactness due to a common to time inculcated between and among the members in the group the feeling of likeness. Likeness means mutuality, and that means society.


Communalism: This is a social, political, economic arrangement in which landed property and other natural resources of a given society are collectively owned, managed and togetherly improved by the community for the common interest of everybody.

Differences between communalism and feudalism:

(i) There is no collective ownership of resources.
(ii) There is room for exploitation.
(iii) There is a provision of annual tributes paid by the tenants to the Lords.
(iv) Tenants hold lands in trust for the Lords.

(i) There is collective ownership of resources.
(ii) There is no room for exploitation.
(iii) There is no annual tribute paid.
(iv) There is collective ownership and management of land.


(i) By Birth: A person is a citizen by birth if either his parents, mother or father is a citizen of a country
(ii) By naturalization: Somebody can become a citizen of a country where he lives through naturalization. This is possible if he can satisfy the constitutional requirements for naturalization
(iii) Marriage or Registration: If a woman is married to a person of another nationality, she can acquire the citizenship of the husband’s country through registration

(i) Statutory age: An alien can become a citizen of another country if he has attained the required age as stipulated by the law of the country
(ii) Good character: He or She must possess good character
(iii) He or She has shown a clear intention of his/her desire to be domiciled in that country


Proto nationalism is generally referred to as traditional nationalists who were opposed to giving up their territories because they were denied respectable positions in their land or communities by reason of their race.

(i) Economic exploitation: There was economic exploitation of Nigerians by foreign firms
(ii) Administrative post: Nigerians were not allowed to hold any administrative posts and the highest they could attain was that of Chief Clerk
(iii) Lake of adequate educational facilities: The missionaries who were out to provide education did not achieve much due to financial problems
(iv) Racial segregation: Discrimination against the natives was mostly witnessed in the 20th century in Nigeria.


(i) Language barrier There are three languages that are used for communication within the ECOWAS bloc, that is English, French and Portuguese.
(ii) Human Rights Abuses Another problem of the ECOWAS group is the penchant of the member states to abuse the human rights of their citizens. The human rights records of some member states is nothing to write home about
(iii) Financial problems The aims and objectives of the ECOWAS can only be achieved when the financial base of the community is solid. However, some member states are not able to honour their financial obligations to the community
(iv) Strong External Influence: Many of the member states of ECOWAS were former colonies of some former colonial powers. Countries such as Britain, France and Portugal ever had a colony or two that now belong to the ECOWAS group
(v) Widespread Poverty: Many of the member states of ECOWAS are among the poorest of the poor nations in the world. Many of their citizens earn less that a dollar a day.