WAEC GCE 2016 CHEMISTRY ANSWER OBJECTIVE AND THEORY (obj and essay) QUESTION AND ANSWER EXPO/CHIOKES Now Available -NOVEMBER/DECEMBER (NOV/DEC)
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(i) Synthetic polymers have more yield and more durable natural polymers
(ii) Synthetic polymers have more resistance to fungal and microbial attack
(1bi) HC = CH + 2HBr –>
H – C – C – H
(1bii) 1,2 -dibromoethene
(1c) Benzene is soluble in ethanol because benzene and water are not miscible, water is polar while benzene is non polar.
Le Chatelier’s principle states that if a system in equilibrium is disturbed by changes in determining factors, such as temperature, pressure, and concentration of components, the system will tend to shift its equilibrium position so as to counteract the effect of the constraint.
(I) K2SO3 wil be oxidized
(II) Zn will be oxidized
Dynamic equilibrium is a steady state reached when a reversible reaction occurs at the same rate in both directions and has an unchanging ratio of productsand reactants.
The reaction starts and stops immediately because the reactants are concentrated and concentration increase rate of reaction
Law of conservation of matter/ mass
Law of definite proportion
The principles states that when distributing electron into the energy level,electron enters the orbital with the lowest energy first before higher ones ie according to their energy level
Ionization energy of 13Al is less than 12Mg because Mg tends to release or donate its valence electron less readily than Al and the nuclear attraction of the valence or Mg is greter than that of Al
Vander waal’s force are weak intermolecular gases at room temperature.
C-F and C-O
C-N and C-H-O and C-N and C-F and C-O
They both have the same number of electron in the outermost shell
The size of positive ion is less than that of the neutral atom
C-F>C-O>C-N>C-H(order of polarity).
12mg =1S^2 2S^2 2P^6 3S^2.
4Be and 12Mg have similar chemical properties because they belong to the same group in the periodic table. Both 4Be and 12Mg belongs to group II in the periodic table hence they have similar chemical properties.
Transition element: Transition elements are those element with partially or incompletely filled d-orbital. Transition metal form coloured ion (or compound), they acts as catalyst,they have variable oxidation stat, they are paramagnetic, they form complex compound or coordination compound
Most transition metals have variable oxidation state because they undergo bonding with the electron in the ns and (n-I) d-orbital .e.g. most of the first series of transition metal from scandium to Zinc have variable oxidation state because they undergo bonding with electron in 4s and 3d- orbital.
(i) Metals are used in electroplating
(ii) Metals are used in making electronic cables and cooking utensils because they are good conductor of heat and electricity.
It is used in electroplating and galvanizing to make electrical cable
Crystallisation is a separation technique that is used to separate a solid that has dissolved in a liquid and made a solution. The solution is warmed in an open container, allowing the solvent to evaporate, leaving a saturated solution.
Evaporation is the process of a substance in a liquid state changing to a gaseous state due to an increase in temperature and/or pressure.
Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.
(i)Their Melting and Boiling Points increases down the group
(ii)Their atomic Radius increases down the group
(iii)Their Ionization Energy: decreases down the group
Gas is a state of matter while vapour is the gaseous state of substance in equilibrium with its liquid or solid state
Normal temperature and pressure
number of moles=volume used/molar volume
-Atomic number is the number of protons present in an atomic nucleus of the element
-Mass number of an element is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus of the element
( k )** ( k )** ( 2) ( k )** ( k )**
Because it attains equilibrium at very fast rate
Hard water is water which does not lather readily with soap. Hard water is formed when water percolates through deposits of limestone and chalk which are largely made up of calcium and magnesium carbonates.
-Temporary hardness: Ca(HCO3)2
-Permanent hardness: Na2C03
-By using chemicals like caustiic soda.
-By using permutot OR zeolite
(i) Sodium chloride
(ii) Potassium chloride
(iii) Chlorine dioxide
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent.